The Chronicle of Ystrad Fflur
Rescued by Huw Llewellyn Rhoddri - April 2020


49 In this year the Romans first fell on the men of the Deceangli.

51 In this year Caradog was defeated and taken to Rome in chains.

52 In this year the men of the Silures broke the Second Legion.

61 In this year the Romans crossed the water to destroy the sacred groves of the old religion.

75 In this year Julius Agricola defeated the Ordovices.

78 In this year Julius Frontinus built the fortress at Caerleon.

383 In this year Macsen Wledig marched from Britain under the Red Dragon.

388 In this year Macsen Wledig fell.

400 In this year Cunedda, Kaletach wrth elyn nac asgwrn, and his sons came from Manaw Gododdin to expel the Irish.

410 In this year the last of the Legions sailed from Britain.

429 In this year Pope Celestine sent Saint Garmon to combat the Pelagians.

430 In this year Gwrtheyrn invited Saxons to settle in Britain as a defence against raiding Picts.

446 In this year the appeal to Aetius went unanswered:
"Between these two kinds of death we shall either be slaughtered or drowned".

470 In this year Cadwallon Lawhir defeated the Irish at Cerrig y Gwyddel.

496 In this year the Saxons were defeated by Arthur at Mount Badon.

520 In this year it is believed Dewi Sant was born. And Sadwrn, Abbot, died.

521 In this year Arthur and Medraut fell at the Battle of Camlann -
and it was the second futile battle. And there was plague in Britain and Ireland.

540 In this year Saint Illtud went to the Lord and Gildas wrote "De Exidio Brittaniae".

542 In this year Saint Deiniol founded the cathedral at Bangor.

546 In this year Dyfrig went to the Lord.

547 In this year there was a great plague in which Maelgwn, king of Gwynedd, died.

550 In this year the learned Padarn of Maes Heli went to the Lord.

550 In this year Derfel Gadarn, who fought at Camlann, and Teilo went to the Lord.

565 In this year Gildas voyaged to Ireland. And Samson, bishop of Dol, died.

570 In this year Gildas, wisest of Britons, died. And there was great slaughter at Catraeth.

573 In this year was the battle of Arfderydd between the sons of Eliffer and Gweddolau son of Ceido;
in which battle Gwenddolau fell; Myrddin went mad. And this was the third futile battle of the Island of Britain.

577 In this year the battle of Dyrham was lost.

584 In this year died Deiniol.

588 In this year Dewi Sant went to the Lord.

601 In this year the Synod of Chester was held. And Asaph died.

602 In this year was the battle of Degsastan and Aethelfrith was victorious.

612 In this year Saint Dyfrig died. And Kentigern went to the Lord.

615 In this year was the Massacre of the saints at Bangor Iscoed and Selyf ap Cynan Garwyn was defeated by Aethelfrith at Chester.

616 In this year Ceredig died.

625 In this year Edwin was baptized, and Rhun ap Urien baptized him and the whole nation of the Thugs along with him.

626 In this year a stone was raised for Cadfan of Gwynedd.

632 In this year was the battle of Meigen; and there Edwin was slain with his two sons;
and Cadwallon ap Cadfan was the victor. And Penda and Eobba, sons of Pybba, fought with him there and Eobba fell.

635 In this year Cadwallon fell at the battle of Cantscaul, and Oswald Brightblade, son of Aethelferth had the victory.

638 In this year was Obsesio Etin.

640 In this year Beuno died.

642 In this year Penda and the kings of the Britons killed Oswald at Maserfelth.
And at the end of the year Owain of Alt Clut killed Domnall Brecc at Strath Caruin.

645 In this year the monastery of David was burnt.

650 In this year was the victory at Caer Luitcoed.

655 In this year was Atbret Iudeu. And at the end of the year was the slaughter of the field of Gai and Oswy killed the kings of the Britons, and Penda with them, save only Catamail Catguommed.

658 In this year Oswy came and took plunder.

660 In this year Gwenfrewi, abbess, died.

665 In this year was the second battle of Badon.

682 In this year The last king of the Britons, Cadwaladr ap Cadwallon, died on pilgrimage to Rome;
this was the first entry in the Brut y Tywysogion.

685 In this year Bredei son of Beli, king of the Picts, killed Ecgfrith at Linn Garan.

721 In this year the Britons prevailed in three battles: Heilyn, Garthmaelog and Pen-cwn.

729 In this year was the battle of Mynydd Carno.

735 In this year Bede, the priest, slept.

750 In this year was Gwaith Mygedog and then Talargan, king of the Picts was slain. And Tewdwr ap Beli died.

754 In this year Rhodri, king of the Britons, died.

760 In this year was Gwaith Henffordd between the Britons and the Saxons. And Dynfnwal ap Tewdwr died.

768 In this year Easter was changed among the Britons, Elfoddw, servant of God, emending it.

774 In this year Ffyrnfael ab Idwal died.

776 In this year died Cuthbert the Abbot.

777 In this year Offa harried the men of the South.

784 In this year Britain was devastated by Offa.

795 In this year the Pagans came to Ireland and Rechra was harried.

796 In this year Offa, king of the Mercians, and Maredudd of Dyfed fell at Rhuddlan.

798 In this year Caradog of Gwynedd was killed by the Saxons.

807 In this year Arthen of Ceredigion died.

808 In this year died Rhun, king of Dyfed, and Cadell of Powys.

809 In this year Elfoddw, archbishop of Gwynedd, died.

810 In this year Menevia was burnt.

811 In this year died Owain ap Maredudd.

812 In this year Degannwy was burnt by fire of lightening.

813 In this year there was war between Hywel and Cynan, and Hywel prevailed.

814 In this year Gruffudd ap Rhun died. And then Griffri ap Cyngen was slain through the treachery of Elise, his brother.
And Hywel obtained the victory and Cynan was driven into flight with many of his host slain.

816 In this year Hywel was driven a second time from Anglesey. And the Saxons ravaged Eryri and took Rhufoniog by force.

817 In this year was the battle of Llan-faes.

818 In this year Coenwulf ravaged the land of Dyfed.

822 In this year Degannwy was destroyed by the Saxons and they took the kingdom of Powys into their own control.

823 In this year Brother Nennius compiled his book.

825 In this year Hywel died.

844 In this year Rhodri ap Merfyn was High King.

848 In this year was the battle of Ffinnant. And the men of Brycheiniog slew Ithel, king of Gwent.

849 In this year the Saxons slew Meurig.

850 In this year Cynin was killed by the black gentiles.

853 In this year Mona laid waste by the black gentiles.

855 In this year Cyngen of Powis died on pilgrimage; and Rhodri took Powys.

861 In this year Maelsechlainn died.

864 In this year Duda laid Glywysing waste.

869 In this year was the battle of Bryn Onnen.

872 In this year Gwgan ap Meurig drowned and Seisyllwg came to Rhodri.

874 In this year were the battles of Banolau and Ynegydd.

876 In this year Rhodri was in Ireland.

877 In this year Rhodri and Gwriad fell to the Saxons.

880 In this year was Dial Rhodri.

886 In this year Hywel died in Rome.

890 In this year Maelsechlainn died.

892 In this year the Black Gentiles came to Gwynedd.

895 In this year Anarawd came, along with the Saxons, to harry Ceredigion.

896 In this year the Black Gentiles raided Brycheiniog, Gwent and Gwynllwg.

903 In this year Igmund came to Anglesey and he held Maes Rhosmeilon.

904 In this year the son of Merfyn was slain by his own folk.

907 In this year was the battle of Dinneir in which Maelog Cam ap Peredur was slain.

910 In this year Cadell ap Rhodri died and Asser.

914 In this year the Black Gentiles took Cyfeiliog, bishop of Ergyng.

916 In this year Anarawd ap Rhodri, king of the Britons, died.

918 In this year Ireland and Anglesey were ravaged by the men of Dublin. And Queen Æthelflæd died.

920 In this year Clydog ap Cadell was slain by Meurig, his brother.

922 In this year was the battle of Dinas Newydd.

927 In this year Hywel ap Cadell submitted to Athelstan.

929 In this year Hywel ap Cadell made pilgrimage to Rome.

935 In this year Gruffudd ab Owain was slain by the men of Ceredigion.

937 In this year was the battle of Brunanburgh.

942 In this year Cadell ab Arthfael was poisoned. And Idwal ap Rhodri and Elisedd, his brother, were slain by the Saxons.

945 In this year Hywel ap Cadell ordered the laws to be codified.

949 In this year king Hywel Dda ap Cadell the head and glory of all the Britons died.
And then was the battle of Carno between the sons of Hywel and the sons of Idwal.

952 In this year Dyfed was laid waste twice by the sons of Idwal, Iago and Ieuaf. And the Gentiles slew Dwnwallon.

954 In this year there was a great slaughter between the sons of Hywel and the sons of Idwal at the place called Gwrgystu:
the battle of Conwy Hirfawr. And after that, Ceredigion was ravaged by the sons of Idwal.

956 In this year died Edwin ap Hywel.

960 In this year Owain ravaged Y Gorwydd.

961 In this year Holyhead and Llyn were ravaged by the sons of Amlaibh.

962 In this year Idwal ap Rhodri was slain.

963 In this year the sons of Gwyn ap Gollwyn were slain.

964 In this year died bishop Rhydderch.

967 In this year the Saxons, led by Aelfhere, ravaged the kingdom of the sons of Idwal.

968 In this year Rhodri ab Idwal was slain. And then Aberffraw was ravaged.

969 In this year Ieuaf ab Idwal was seized by Iago, his brother, and was imprisoned.

970 In this year Einion ab Owain ravaged Gower.

972 In this year Godfrey, son of Harold, ravaged Anglesy and subdued the island.

973 In this year there was a great fleet along with Edgar, king of the Saxons, at Chester.

974 In this year Iago was expelled from his kingdom through the victory of Hywel.
And Meurig ab Idwal was blinded and Morgan died.

975 In this year Edgar, king of the Saxons, died and Idwallon ab Owain. And Dwnwallon of Strathclyde went to Rome.

978 In this year Gwrmid ravaged Llyn for the second time. And Hywel ap Ieuaf and the Saxons ravaged Clynnog Fawr.

980 In this year Idwal was slain. And thereupon Custennin ap Iago and Godfrey, son of Harold, ravaged Llyn and Anglesey.
And thereupon Hywel ap Ieuaf slew Custennin at Gwaith Hirbarwch.

983 In this year the lands of Einion ab Owain were ravaged by the Saxons, with Aelfhere as their leader,
and Hywel ap Ieuaf. And Einion slew many of their hosts.

986 In this year Hywel ap Ieuaf was slain through the treachery of the Saxons.
And Cadwallon ap Ieuaf slew Ionafal ap Meurig.

985 In this year Maredudd ab Owain slew Cadwallon ap Ieuaf and took Gwynedd and Anglesey.

987 In this year the Black Gentiles raided Mona; many died or were enslaved. And Llywarch ab Owain was deprived of his eyes. And Maredudd ab Owain took the remainder of Ceredigion and Dyfed.

989 In this year Maredudd ab Owain of Deheubarth paid a penny from every person as tribute to the Black Host.
And Gluniairn, son of Amlaibh, was slain.

991 In this year Maredudd ab Owain ravaged Maeshyfaidd.

992 In this year Edwin ab Einion and Edylfi the Saxon and a great host ravaged all the territory of Maredudd and took hostages.
And Maredudd ravaged Glamorgan by hiring Gentiles and ransoming hostages.

999 In this year Maredudd ab Owain, the most praiseworthy king of the Britons, died.

1000 In this year The Millenium came but brought no relief from the Black Gentiles. And Cynan ap Hywel held Gwynedd.

1002 In this year Cynan ap Hywel was slain.

1004 In this year Gwlfach and Ubiad were blinded.

1012 In this year Eadric and Ubis, the Saxons, ravaged Menevia.

1013 In this year Sweyn, son of Harold, father of Cnut, drove Edgar, king of the Saxons from his kingdom.

1016 In this year Cnut, son of Sweyn, gained possession of the kingdom of England and Denmark and Great Germany.

1018 In this year Llywelyn ap Seisyll slew Aeddan ap Blegywryd and his four sons.

1021 In this year Meurig ab Arthfael was slain.

1022 In this year an Irishman claimed to be Rhain ap Maredudd. He was accepted by the men of the South and he led them against Gwynedd.
And the men of Gwynedd defeated him at Abergwili with great slaughter on both sides. And he was never seen again. And then the men of Gwynedd ravaged the whole land. And Eilaf came to the island of Britain and ravaged Dyfed.

1023 In this year died king Llywelyn. And Rhydderch ap Iestyn held the kingdom of the South.

1027 In this year Cynan ap Seisyll was slain.

1033 In this year the Irish killed Rhydderch ab Iestyn. And Iago ab Idwal held Gwynedd after Llywelyn.
And the sons of Edwin, Hywel and Maredudd, held the kingdom of the South.

1034 In this year was the battle of Irathwy when the sons of Edwin fought the sons of Rhydderch.

1035 In this year Maredudd ab Edwin was slain by the sons of Cynan. Afterwards a cross was raised for him at Carew. And the Saxons slew Caradog ap Rhydderch.. And Cnut, son of Sweyn, died and Eilaf fled to Germany.

1039 In this year Iago of Gwynedd was slain. And in his place Gruffudd ap Llywelyn ruled who throughout his reign hounded the Pagans and the Saxons in many battles. And first he defeated Leofrig of Mercia at Rhydd-y-Groes.

1041 In this year was the battle of Pencadair where Gruffudd defeated Hywel ab Edwin, and he seized Hywel's wife and took her for his own.

1042 In this year was the battle of Pwlldyfach where Hywel defeated the Gentiles.
And in that year Gruffudd was captured by the men of Dublin.

1043 In this year Hywel ab Owain, king of Glamorgan, died in his old age.

1044 In this year Hywel ab Edwin gathered a fleet of the Gentiles of Ireland to ravage the kingdom.
And Gruffudd encountered him and there was a mighty battle at the mouth of the Tywi. And there Gruffudd prevailed and Hywel was slain.

1045 In this year there was great treachery and deceit between the sons of Rhydderch, Gruffudd and Rhys, and Gruffudd ap Llywelyn.

1047 In this year about seven score of Gruffudd ap Llywelyn's war-band were slain through the treachery of the leading men of Ystrad Twyi.
And thereafter Gruffudd ravaged Dyfed and Ystrad Tywi.

1049 In this year all Deheubarth was ravaged.

1052 In this year Gruffudd ap Llywelyn fought the Saxons and their French allies at Llanllieni.

1056 In this year Gruffudd ap Llywelyn took Gruffudd ap Rhydderch's kingdom and his life.
And after that Gruffudd moved a host against the Saxons, with Ranulf as their leader. And after bitter-fierce fighting the Saxons turned to flight. And Gruffudd pursued them to within the walls of Hereford and there he massacred them and destroyed the walls and burnt the town. And with vast spoil he returned home eminently worthy.

1058 In this year Magnus, son of Harold, ravaged the kingdom of England with the help and chieftainship of Gruffudd ap Llywelyn, king of the Britons.

1059 In this year died Owain ap Gruffudd.

1063 In this year Gruffudd ap Llywelyn was slain, after innumerable victories, through the treachery of his own men.
He had been head and shield and protector to the Britons.

1066 In this year Harold, son of earl Godwin, raised himself through oppression to the very height of kingship over the Saxons. And while he was enjoying the glory
William the Bastard and a mighty host came against him; and after a mighty battle and a slaughter of the Saxons despoiled him of his kingdom and his life.

1069 In this year was the battle of Mechain fought between the sons of Cynfyn, Bleddyn and Rhiwallon, and the sons of Gruffudd, Maredudd and Ithel.
And there the sons of Gruffudd fell and Rhiwallon ap Cynfyn. And Bleddyn ap Cynfyn ruled. And Maredudd ab Owain ab Edwin ruled in the South.
1071 In this year the Benedictines founded a priory at Chepstow.

1072 In this year Maredudd ab Owain was slain by the French and Caradog ap Gruffud ap Rhydderch on the banks of the Rhymni.

1073 In this year the French ravaged Ceredigion and Dyfed. And Menevia and Bangor were ravaged by the Gentiles.

1074 In this year the French ravaged Ceredigion.

1075 In this year Bleddyn ap Cynfyn was slain through the evil-spirited treachery of the princes of Ystraf Tywi; and it was Rhys ab Owain who slew him.
And after him Trahaearn ap Caradog ruled over Gwynedd; and Rhys ab Owain and Rhydderch ap Caradog held the South. and Gruffudd ap Cynan took Anglesey. Thereafter was the battle of Camddwr between the sons of Cadwgan, Goronwy and Llywelyn, and Caradog ap Gruffudd, and Rhys ab Owain and Rhydderch ap Caradog.
Also in this year was the battle of Bron-yr-erw between Gruffudd and Trahaearn.

1076 In this year Rhydderch ap Caradog was slain by Meirchion ap Rhys ap Rhydderch, his cousin, through treachery.

1077 In this year was the battle of Gweunytwl between the sons of Cadwgan and Rhys ab Owain.

1078 In this year was the battle of Pwllgwdig in which Trahaearn obtained the victory and Rhys ab Owain fled like a wounded frightened stag before the hounds.
And at he close of the year Caradog ap Gruffudd slew Rhys and Hywel, his brother.

1079 In this year Rhys ap Tewdwr began to rule.

1080 In this year Menevia was pillaged.

1081 In this year was the battle of Mynydd Carn, in which Trahaearn ap Caradog was slain by Rhys ap Tewdwr and Gruffudd ap Cynan.
And thereafter Gruffudd ruled in Gwynedd. And William, king of England and Wales and much of France, came to Menevia on pilgrimage.

1087 In this year William the Bastard, prince of the Normans and king of the Saxons and the Britons and the Scots, died after exceeding great glory in this changeable world.

1088 In this year Rhys ap Tewdwr was expelled from his kingdom by the sons of Bleddyn. And he fled to Ireland.
And after he had gathered a fleet there, he gave battle at Llech-y-crau and there killed the two sons of Bleddyn.

1089 In this year the shrine of David was taken by stealth and despoiled.

1091 In this year Rhys ap Tewdwr encountered Gruffudd ap Maredudd in battle near Llandudoch, where he drove him to flight and pursued him and at last he slew him.

1093 In this year Rhys ap Tewdwr, king of the South, was slain by Frenchmen who were inhabiting Brycheiniog - and with him fell the kingdom of the Britons. And within two months the French overran Dyfed and Ceredigion - and made castles and fortified them. And Bernard de Neufmarchine founded a Benedictine priory at Brecon.

1094 In this year the Britons being unable to bear the tyranny and injustice of the French, threw off the rule of the French, and they destroyed their castles in Gwynedd and inflicted slaughter upon them. And the French brought a host to Gwynedd and Cadwgan ap Bleddyn drove them to flight with great slaughter at Coed Yspwys. And at the close of the year the castles of Ceredigion and Dyfed were all taken except two.

1095 In this year William, king of England, moved a host against the Britons but he returned home empty-handed and having gained naught.

1096 In this year The French moved a host into Gwent and the Britons slew them at Celli Tarfawg. And thereupon the French raided Brycheiniog and they were slain by the sons of Idnerth ap Cadwgan at Aber-llech. And the war-band of Cadwgan ap Bleddyn despoiled the castle at Pembroke.

1097 In this year William moved a great host without number against the Britons. And the Britons, placing their trust in the Lord of Heaven, avoided the assault of the French. And the French returned home dejected and empty-handed.

1098 In this year the French moved a third time against the men of Gwynedd. For fear of treachery, Gruffudd ap Cynan fled to Ireland.

1099 In this year Cadwgan ap Bleddyn and Gruffudd ap Cynan returned from Ireland. And, after making peace with the French, they received a portion of the land and the kingdom. Also died Rhygyfarch the Wise, greatly lamented by all. And he died in the forty-third year of his age.

1100 In this year died William, king of England, who would do nothing just nor anything that appertained to the commandments of God. He died without heir because he had always used concubines. And thereupon Henry, his brother, took the kingdom.

1101 In this year died Goronwy ap Cadwgan and Gwyn ap Gruffudd and Hugh the Fat, earl of Chester.

1102 In this year there was treachery between Henry, king of England, and Robert, earl of Shrewsbury, who was called de Belleme. And the king summoned Iorwerth ap Bleddyn and offered him the earl's portion of Wales, that was Powys and Ceredigion and half of Dyfed. And Iorwerth ap Bleddyn seized his brother, Maredudd, who was with the earl and imprisoned him. But the king did not keep faith with him and took from him Dyfed.

1103 In this year king Henry summoned Iorwerth ap Bleddyn by deceitful means to Shrewsbury to be judged. And there the whole proceeding turned against him so that, not by law but through might and power they placed him in the king's prison. And the Augustinians founded a priory at Llanthony.

1106 In this year Hywel ap Goronwy was slained through the treachery of the French. And it was Gwgan ap Meurig who deceived him and strangled him. And at the close of the year, Meurig and Griffi, sons of Trahaearn ap Caradog, were slain by Owain ap Cadwgan.

1107 In this year Maredudd ap Bleddyn escaped from prison and regained possession of his land. Urban of Llandaff professed obedience to Canterbury and Herve was driven from Bangor.

1108 In this year a folk of strange origin and customs, with nothing known of where they had been concealed in the island for many years before that, were sent by king Henry to Dyfed. And they occupied the whole cantref called Rhos and drove away the inhabitants from the land. And that folk had come from Flanders.

1109 In this year Owain ap Cadwgan stole Nest from Gerald of Windsor. And there was much grief.

1111 In this year Owain ap Cadwgan made peace with king Henry by giving hostages and promising much money.

1113 In this year Owain ap Cadwgan gouged out the eyes of Madog ap Rhiryd. And Owain and Maredudd ap Bleddyn divided his portion of Powys between them. And the Benedictines established a priory at Goldcliff.

1114 In this year Henry, king of England, moved a host against the men of Gwynedd and above all to Powys. And Gruffudd ap Cynan made peace, paying a large tribute. And Owain ap Cadwgan did likewise and thereafter he accompanied the king to Normandy.

1115 In this year king Henry made one from Normandy - his name was Bernard - bishop of Menevia in contempt of the clerics of the Britons.

1116 In this year Gruffudd ap Rhys took the castle near Arberth and burned it. Many young hotheads gravitated to him and they carried off many spoils. And he burnt a castle in Gower and slew many within. And Owain ap Cadwgan was slain.

1118 In this year treachery was bred between Hywel ab Ithel and the sons of Owain ab Edwin ap Goronwy. And the sons of Owain were defeated by Hywel. And Hywel was wounded and on the fortieth day after coming home he died.

1120 In this year Urban had Dyfrig's bones brought to Llandaff. And king Henry's two sons - one by his wedded wife and one by his concubine - were drowned. And thus ended the year.

1121 In this year as soon as the roads were dry king Henry moved a mighty host against the men of Powys. And Maredudd ap Bleddyn and the sons of Cadwgan made peace paying heavy tribute.

1122 In this year there was peace.

1123 In this year Calixtus II approved the cult of Dewi Sant. And Gruffudd ap Rhys slew Gruffudd ap Sulhaearn.

1124 In this year Caradoc went to the Lord.

1125 In this year Gruffudd ap Maredudd ap Bleddyn slew Ithel ap Rhiryd ap Bleddyn in the presence of Ithel's father. And treachery was begotten between the sons of Cadwgan ap Bleddyn; and Morgan with his own hand slew Maredudd, his brother.

1126 In this year Cardinal John of Cremona visited Llandaff. And king Henry returned from Normandy.

1127 In this year Gruffudd ap Rhys was expelled by king Henry from the portion of land which the king had given him, because he had been accused without cause by the French who were dwelling along with him. And at the close of the year died Daniel, son of Sulien, bishop of Menevia, the man who was mediator between Gwynedd and Powys; and none had found fault with him but rather he was beloved by all.

1128 In this year Morgan ap Cadwgan went to Jerusalem because of the murder of his brother, and as he was returning he died in the island of Cyprus.

1129 In this year Llywelyn ab Owain slew Maredudd ap Llywarch.

1130 In this year Llywelyn ab Owain slew in Powys Iorwerth ap Llywarch. And soon after that Maredudd ap Bleddyn caused Llywelyn ab Owain to be castrated and to have his eyes gouged out.

1131 In this year Walter fitz Richard brought the Cisterians to Tintern.

1132 In this year Iorwerth ab Owain was slain. And soon after that Maredudd ap Bleddyn, the splendour and defence of the men of Powys, died having done penance on his soul and body and worthily receiving the Body of Christ.

1134 In this year naught much happened.

1135 In this year Henry, king of England and Wales, died in the first month of winter in Normandy. And his nephew, Stephen of Blois, took the sceptre by force.

1136 In this year the lady Gwenllian died, brave as any son of Gruffudd ap Cynan. And Morgan ab Owain slew Richard fitz Gilbert. And thereupon Owain and Cadwaladr, sons of Gruffudd ap Cynan, the splenour of all Britain and her defence and her strength and her freedom, held supremacy over all Wales and moved a mighty fierce host to Ceredigion. And they burned the castles of Aberystwyth, Dineirth and Caerwedros. Towards the close of the year they came again to Ceredigion with a numerous host and against them came Stephen, the constable, and all the Flemings and all the knights. And after fierce fighting Owain and Cadwaladr honourably won the victory at Crug Mawr. And the Normans and Flemings returned home weak and despondent, having lost about three thousand men. And Geoffrey wrote the history of the kings of Britain.

1137 In this year died Gruffudd ap Rhys, the light and excellence and strength of all South Wales. And Gruffudd ap Cynan, prince of Gwynedd and head and king and defender and pacifier of all Wales, ended his temporal life in Christ after receiving extreme unction and communion and confession and repentance for his sins, and becoming a monk and making a good end in his perfect old age. And for a third time the sons of Gruffudd ap Cynan came to Ceredigion and burned castles.

1138 In this year the Empress came to England. And priests were forbidden to marry and the monks from Shrewsbury stole Gwenfrewi's bones.

1139 In this year Cynwrig ab Owain was slain by the friends and followers of Madog ap Maredudd.

1140 In this year the sons of Bleddyn ap Gwyn slew Maredudd ap Hywel. And the Cistercians came to Whitland.

1141 In this year Rhys ap Hywel slew Hywel ap Maredudd ap Rhydderch of Cantref Bychan.

1142 In this year Hywel ap Maredudd ap Bleddyn was slain by his own men.

1143 In this year Anarawd ap Gruffudd was slain by the followers of Cadwaladr ap Gruffudd ap Cynan of whom he had no fear. And Owain ap Gruffudd ap Cynan took it grievously; for he had promised his daughter to Anarawd. And he thought to despoil Cadwaladr of his territory.
1144 In this year Cadwaladr was expelled by Owain. But they made peace through the counsel of their leading men. And Welsh pilgrims were drowned on their way to Jerusalem. And Hugh fitz Ranulf a second time subjugated Malienydd.

1145 In this year Gilbert, the son of the other Gilbert, came to Dyfed and overran it; and he built the castle of Carmarthen.

1146 In this year Meurig ap Rhiryd was slain through the treachery of his own men. And Cadell ap Gruffudd overcame by force the castle of Dinefwr which earl Gilbert had built. And soon after that he took the castles of Carmarthen and Llanstephan. Soon after that a multitude of French and Flemings laid seige to Llanstephan . And Maredudd ap Gruffudd, to whom the castle had been entrusted, rose superior to his age: for a boy though he was in age he showed nonetheless the action of a man so that his enemies were slain or put to flight. At the close of year died Rhun ab Owain, a praiseworthy young man. And when the news of his death reached Owain nether the splendour of sovereignty nor the entertainment of the bards could raise him from his grief. God, however, of his accustomed goodness showed mercy on the race of Britons, so that it should not be wrecked completely like a ship when it has lost its steersman, and He preserved Owain for them as leader. For divine providence delivered up to him the castle called Mold. And Owain laid aside his sorrow and grief and vigorously returned to his natural state of mind.

1147 In this year the king of France and the emperor of Germany and a vast multitude of earls and barons went to Jerusalem. And strife was begotten between the sons of Owain, Hywel and Cynan, and Cadwaladr, their uncle. And the sons of Owain took Cadwaladr's castle at Cynfael.

1148 In this year there was a great mortality in the island of Britain.

1149 In this year Owain ap Gruffudd ap Cynan built a castle in Ial. Towards the end of the year Madog ap Maredudd built the castle of Oswestry.

1150 In this year Cadell ap Gruffudd repaired the castle of Carmarthen, for the streghth and splendour of his kingdom; and he harried Cydwelli. And Madog ap Maredudd, king of Powys, thought with the help of Ranulf, earl of Chester, to rise up against Owain. And after their host had been slain at Colehill they fled.

1151 In this year the sons of Owain, Cadell and Maredudd and Rhys, took Ceredigion from Hywel ab Owain.

1152 In this year Owain ap Gruffudd caused Cunedda ap Cadwallon, his nephew, to be castrated and his eyes to be gouged out of his head. And Owain expelled Cadwaladr, his brother, from Anglesey. And Llywelyn ap Madog ap Maredudd slew Stephen fitz Baldwin.

1153 In this year prince Henry came to england and subdued it all. And towards the end of the year died Ranulf, earl of Chester. And Cadell ap Gruffudd went on a pilgrimage, and he entrusted all his authority to Maredudd and Rhys, his brothers, until he should come back.

1154 In this year died king Stephan after prince Henry had come a second time to England and gained possession of the whole kingdom.

1155 In this year Maredudd ap Gruffudd ap Rhys, lord of Ceredigion and Ystrad Tywi and Dyfed, a man of great prowess and justice and mercy, died in the twenty-fifth year of his age.

1156 In this year when Rhys ap Gruffudd heard that Owain, prince of Gwynedd, his uncle was coming with a great host to Ceredigion, he vigorously gathered a host. and he came as far as Aberdyfi, and there he raised a ditch to give battle.

1157 In this year Henry, king of England, led a mighty host to Chester, in order to subdue Gwynedd. And Owain, prince of Gwynedd, gathered a mighty host and encamped at Basingwerk and raised a ditch to give battle. And the sons of Owain encountered Henry in the wood of Hawarden and gave him a hard battle so that after many of his men had been slain he escaped to the open country. And then the king gathered his host and came as far as Rhuddlan and Owain harassed the king both by day and by night. While those things were happening the king's fleet approached Anglesey and plundered the churches of Mary and of Peter. But the saints did not let them get away for God took vengance upon them. For on the following day the men of Anglesey fell on them; and the French, according to their usual custom, fled but only a few of them escaped back to their ships. And Henry, son of king Henry, was amongst the slain. And then the king made peace with Owain; and Cadwaladr received back his land. And the king returned to England.

1158 In this year after all of the princes of Wales save Rhys ap Gruffudd had made peace with the king, Rhys on his own carried on war against the king. And after taking counsel of his leading men, and against his will he made peace with the king.

1159 In this year Rhys ap Gruffudd conquered the castles which the French had set up all over Dyfed. And then came the earl Reginald, son of king Henry, and a vast multitude of French and Saxons and Flemings and Welsh with him. And without daring to attack Rhys where he was, they returned home after a bootless journey. And they offered Rhys a truce and he accepted it.

1160 In this year Madog ap Maredudd, prince of Powys died at Winchester. And soon after that Llywelyn, his son, in whom lay the hope of all Powys was slain.

1161 In this year naught happened??

1162 In this year Owain ap Gruffudd defeated Hywel ap Ieuaf at Llanidloes.

1163 In this year Henry, king of England, came to Deheubarth with a mighty host. And after Rhys ap Gruffudd had given him hostages, he returned again to England.

1164 In this year when Rhys ap Gruffudd saw that the king would not keep aught of his promise to him, he gained possession of all Ceredigion and inflicted repeated slaughters and despoilings upon the Flemings. And thereupon all the Welsh united together to throw off the rule of the French.

1165 In this year King Henry came to Oswestry, thinking to annihilate all Welshmen. And against him came Owain and Cadwaladr, sons of Gruffudd ap Cynan, and all the host of Gwynedd with them, and Rhys ap Gruffudd and with him the host of Deheubarth, and Owain Cyfeiliog and the sons of Madog ap Maredudd and the host of all Powys with them, and the two sons of Madog ab Idnerth and their host. And both sides stayed in their tents until the king moved his host into Dyffryn Ceiriog and there he was defeated at Crogen. And then the tempest drove him back to England. And in rage he had the eyes of twenty-two hostages gouged out; and these included two sons of Owain and two sons of Rhys. And Rhys took the castles of Cardigan and Cilgerran. And through the will of God and at the instigation of the Holy Spirit, and with the help of Rhys ap Gruffudd, a community of monks came to Ystrad Fflur. And died Llywelyn ab Owain Gwynedd, the flower and splendour of the whole land.

1166 In this year the French and the Flemings came to Cilgerran. And after many of them had been slain, they returned again empty-handed. And Basingwerk was destroyed by Owain ap Gruffudd.

1167 In this year Owain and Cadwaladr and Rhys ap Gruffudd beseiged and destroyed the castle of Rhuddlan.

1168 In this year Gwrgenau, abbot of Llwythlawr, was slain by Cynan ab Owain.

1169 At the end of this year Owain ap Gruffudd ap Cynan, prince of Gwynedd, the man who was of great goodness and very great nobility and wisdom, the bulwark of all Wales, after innumerable victories, and unconquered from his youth, and without ever having refused anyone that for which he asked, died after taking penance and communion and confession and making a good end.

1171 In this year Thomas, archbishop of Canterbury, a man of great piety and saintliness and righteousness, was slain by the counsel and at the instigation of Henry, king of England, before the altar of the Trinity in his own church at Canterbury. And Rhys ap Gruffudd forced Owain Cyfeiliog, his son-in-law, to submit to him , and took seven hostages from him. And Rhys made friends with the king and made peace with him.

1172 In this year died Cadwaladr ap Gruffudd ap Cynan. And the king granted truce to Iorwerth ab Owain and his sons to come and discuss peace with him. And Owain ab Iowerth was slain by the earl of Bristol's men. And after that Iorwerth and Hywel, his brother, placing no trust in the king, ravaged the lands around Gloucester and Hereford, pillaging and slaying without mercy. And the king left Rhys ap Gruffudd as justice on his behalf in all of Deheubarth and went to France.

1173 In this year many men and animals died, nor was it surprising: for there was born to Rhys a son by the daughter of Maredudd, his brother. And Iorwerth ab Owain took the castle of Caerleon by force. And Dafydd ab Owain gained possession of all anglesey, after driving Maelgwn, his brother, to Ireland.

1174 In this year Dafydd ab Owain gained possession of all Gwynedd, after expelling all his brothers and uncles.

1175 In this year Dafydd ab Owain seized through treachery Rhodri, his uterine brother, and harshly imprisoned him. And Dafydd then married the king's sister, Emma of Anjou, - because he thought he could hold his territory in peace thereby. But before the end of the year Rhodri escaped and drove his brother from Anglesey and across the Conway. And Rhys ap Gruffudd took with him to the king's council at Gloucester all the princes of Wales who had incurred the king's displeasure. All those returned with Rhys, having obtained peace, to their own lands. And immediately after that Seisyll ap Dyfnwal was slain through treachery in the castle of Abergavenny by the lord of Brycheiniog. And along with him Geoffrey, his son, and the best men of Gwent were slain. And the French made for Seisyll's court; and after seizing Gwladus, his wife, they slew Cadwaladr, his son. And from that day there befell a pitiful massacre in Gwent. And from that time forth, after that treachery, none of the Welsh dared place trust in the French.

1176 In this year at Christmas Rhys ap Gruffudd, Yr Arglwydd Rhys, held court in splendour at Cardigan, in his castle. And he set two kinds of contest there: one beteen bards and poets, another between harpists and crowders and pipers and various classes of music-craft. And he had two chairs set for the victors. And this was the second founding of the abbey at Cwm-hir.

1177 In this year Einion Cliud and Morgan ap Maredudd were slain. And Rhys ap Gruffudd built the castle of Rhaeadr-gwy.

1178 In this year the sons of Cynan waged war against Rhys ap Gruffudd.

1179 In this year Cadwallon was slain.

1180 In this year there was nothing that might be placed on record.

1181 In this year Adam, bishop of St. Asaph, died at Oxford.

1182 In this year Ranulf de Poer was slain by young men from Gwent, and many knights along with him.

1183 In this year died king Henry the Younger.

1184 In this year died Rhydderch, abbot of Whitland, and Meurig, abbot of Cwm-hir. And at Llansantffraid Rhys ap Gruffudd confirned all his gifts to the community of Ystrad Fflur.

1185 In this year the Patriarch came from Jerusdalem to England to seek help from the king of England lest the Saracens and the Jews should harry all the land of Jerusalem. And he went back with a multitude of knights and foot-soldiers along with him. And died Dafydd, abbot of Ystrad Fflur.

1186 In this year a community went from Ystrad Fflur to Rhedynog Felen in Gwynedd. And Cadwaladr ap Rhys was slain in Dyfed.

1187 In this year died Ithel, abbot of Ystrad Marchell. And Maelgwn ap Rhys, the shield and bulwark of all Wales, ravaged the town of Tenby and burned it. He was of the brighest fame and beloved of all, and comely of face, though he was of a moderately sized body; harsh to his enemies, and genial and kind towards his comrades, ready with gifts; in his home meek, in war a victor; all his neighbours dreaded him; like a lion was he in his actions, and like a lion's whelp roaring in chase; the man who frequently slew the Flemmings and who drove them to flight many a time.

1188 In this year the Pagans and the Saracens came to Jerusalem and they took the whole city on the first assault on Ash Wednesday, and carried off the Holy Cross. And Henry, king of England, took the cross. And Baldwin, archbishop of Canterbury, came to Wales with Peter, bishop of Menevia, John, abbot of Whitland, Seisyll, abbot of Ystraf Fflur, Gerald of Barry, archdeacon of Brecon, and other clerics to preach the crusade. And Rhys ap Gruffudd accompanied them.

1189 In this year died Henry, king of England. And Rhys ap Gruffudd took the castle of St. Clears and Abercorram and Llanstephan. And Maelgwn ap Rhys - a second Gawain - was seized and imprisoned by his father and his brother.

1190 In this year Richard, king of England, and Baldwin, archbishop of Canterbury, and earls and barons beyond number went as Crusaders to Jerusalem. And Rhys ap Gruffudd built the castle of Cydwelli and Gwenllian, daughter of Rhys, the flower and beauty of all Wales, died.

1191 In this year died Gruffudd Maelor, lord of Powys, the most generous of all the princes of the Britains. And Rhys ap Gruffudd took the castle of Nevern.

1192 In this year Maelgwn ap Rhys escaped from the prison of the lord of Brycheiniog. And Rhys ap Gruffudd took the castle of Lawhaden.

1193 In this year a certain earl seized Richard, king of England, as he was coming from Jerusalem. And for his release an immense tax and collection were imposed. And the war-band of Maelgwn ap Rhys manfully breached the castle of Ystrad Meurig. And Hywel Sais ap Rhys took Wizo's castle by treachery. And Anarawd ap Einion in his greed for worldly power seized his two brothers, Madog and Hywel, and had their eyes gouged out of their heads.

1194 In this year Rhys ap Gruffudd was seized by his sons and imprisoned; but Hywel Sais deceived Maelgwn and released his father from prison. And the sons of Cadwallon burned the castle of Rhaeadr-gwy. And Richard, king of England, returned from Jerusalem. And Llywelyn ab Iorwerth and the two sons of Cynan ab Owain and Rhodri ab Owain united against Dafydd ab Owain and drove him to flight and took from him all his territory except three castles.

1195 In this year Roger Mortimer came with a host to Maelienydd and drove away the two sons of Cadwallon. And the two sons of Rhys ap Gruffudd were a second time seized through treachery by their father and imprisoned. And Owain ap Gruffudd ap Maredudd retired to Ystrad Marchell.

1196 In this year Rhys ap Gruffudd gathered a mighty host, and he fell on Carmarthen and destroyed it and burned it to the ground. And he took and burned the castles of Colwyn and Radnor. And Roger de Mortimer and Hugh de Sai arrayed a mighty host against him. And Rhys armed himself like a lion with a strong hand and daring heart, and attacked his enemies and drove them to flight. And forthwith Rhys took Painscastle in Elfael.

1197 In this year there was an exceeding great mortality in all the island of Britain. And, on the fourth day from the calends of May, died Rhys ap Gruffudd, prince of Deheubarth and the unconquered head of all Wales. Alas for the glory of battles and the shield of knights, the defender of his land, the splendour of arms, the arm of prowess, the hand of generosity, the eye and lustre of worthiness, the summit of majesty, the light of reason, the magnanimity of Hercules!

1198 In this year Maelgwn ap Rhys took the castles of Cardigan and Ystrad Meurig. And a community from Cwm-hir went to reside at Cymer in Nannau in Meirionydd. And Gwenwynwyn gathered a mighty host to seek to win for the Welsh their original rights and laid seige to Painscastle. And the Saxons gathered all the might of England and fell upon the Welsh and immediately drove them to flight and slew untold numbers of them like sheep.

1199 In this year Maelgwn ap Rhys gathered a host and fell upon the castle of Dinierth, which Gruffudd had built.

1200 In this year Maelgwn ap Rhys, for fear and also in hatred of Gruffudd, his brother, sold to the Saxons the lock and stay of all Wales, the castle of Cardigan, for a small and worthless price.

1201 In this year Llywelyn ab Iorwerth, being a young man graced with generosity and worthiness, gained possession of the cantref of Llyn and Eifionydd, after driving out Maredudd ap Cynan because of his treachery. And the community of Ystrad Fflur went to the new church on the eve of Whit Sunday, after it had been nobly and handsomely built. And on the feast of St. James the apostle died Gruffydd, son of Yr Arglwydd Rhys and a prince of Wales by right and inheritance, after assuming the habit of the order of Ystrad Fflur; and there he was honourably buried.

1202 In this year Maredudd ap Cynan was expelled from Meirionydd, because of his treachery, by Hywel ap Gruffudd, his nephew, and he was despoiled of all his possessions except his horse. And the Welsh took the castle of Gwerthrynion from Roger de Mortimer and burned it to the ground. And Llywelyn ab Iorwerth moved a mighty host to Powys to subdue Gwenwynwyn and to gain possession of his territory. And he took the castle of Bala.

1203 In this year Llywelyn ab Iorwerth expelled Dafydd ab Owain from Gwynedd; and he died in England. And Gwenwynwyn took the castles of Llandovery and Llangadog and drove Maelgwn away.

1204 In this year Hywel, son of Yr Arglwydd Rhys, was slain in Cemaes through betrayal by the men of Maelgwn, his brother; and he died after he had assumed the habit of the order of Ystrad Fflur, and he was honourably buried in the same grave as Gruffudd, his brother. And Maelgwn ap Rhys lost as it were the bolts and stays of all his territory and all else he had to his name, to wit the castles of Llandovery and Dinefwr to the sons of Gruffudd, his brother. And William Marshall came against the castle of Gilgerran with a great host and took it.

1205 In this year Maelgwn ap Rhys caused a certain Irishman to slay with a battle-axe Cedifor ap Gruffudd, a praiseworthy man, gracious, strong and generous, by treachery and unjustly, him and his four sons, after they had been seized.

1206 In this year cardinal John came from Rome and he gathered together bishops and abbots and monks beyond number, and held a stately synod wherein to confirm the laws of the Church.

1208 In this year Christianity was interdicted throughout all England and Wales because John, king of England, opposed the election of the archbishop of Canterbury. And Gwenwynwyn was seized at Shrewsbury by the king. And Llywelyn ab Iorwerth made for his territory and gained possession of all of it and his castles and his townships. And when Maelgwn ap Rhys learned of this, for fear of Llywelyn he razed the castle of Ystrad Meurig to the ground and burned Dineirth and Aberystwyth. And Llywelyn came to Aberystwyth and there he built the castle again and gained for himself the cantref of Penweddig and he held it; and the other portion, between the Dyfi and the Aeron, he gave to the sons of Gruffudd.

1209 In this year Rhys and Owain, the sons of Gruffudd, manfully attacked the castle of Llangadog, and after killing some and capturing others of the garrison, they burned the castle.

1210 In this year the earl of Chester again built the castle of Degannwy, which Llywelyn ab Iorwerth had destroyed for fear of the king, and the castle of Holywell. And Llywelyn ravaged the land of that said earl. And about the feast of Andrew the Apostle, Gwenwynwyn recovered his land with the support of the king of England. And Maelgwn ap Rhys was joyful because of that, and he made a mutual pledge with the king. And forthwith, unmindful of the oath and pledge he had given to Rhys and Owain, the sons of Gruffudd, he gathered a mighty host of French and Welsh; and he attacked the cantref of Penweddig. And Rhys and Owain and their war-band fell on the host by night, and killed some and captured others, and drove the others to flight. And Maelgwn shamefully fled on foot by night and escaped.

1211 In this year Llywelyn ab Iorwerth led frequent attacks against the Saxons, harassing them cruelly. And because of that, John, king of England, gathered a mighty host and made for Gwynedd, planning to dispossess Llywelyn and to destroy him utterly. And the king came as far as Chester and to the castle of Degannwy. And there the host suffered lack of food to such an extent that an egg was sold for a penny-halfpenny; and they found the flesh of their horses as good as the best dishes. And because of that the king, having lost many of his men, returned in shame to England without having fulfilled aught of his mission. And he returned again in August, and with him a host which was greater and fiercer. And Llywelyn, being unable to suffer the king's rage, sent his wife, the king's daughter, to him by the counsel of his leading men to make peace with the king on whatever terms he could. And after he had accepted safe conduct to go to the king and to come away from him free, he went to the king and was reconciled to him. And then all the princes of Wales made peace with the king, except the two sons of Gruffudd, son of Yr Arglwydd Rhys. And the king with great joy and victory returned to England. And he commanded Falkes, sheriff of Cardiff, to take all the host of Glamorgan and Dyfed with him to force the sons of Gruffudd ap Rhys to yield or else to drive them from all the kingdom. And Rhys and Owain, being unable to counter such great might as that, sent messengers to Falkes to draw up peace for them; for there was no place for them to flee in all of Wales. And Rhys and Owain went to the king under safe conduct of Falkes; and the king received them into reconciliation and into peace.

1212 In this year Llywelyn ab Iorwerth, prince of Gwynedd, being unable to bear the injuries which the men from the new castles were inflicting upon him, made a solm pact with the princes of Wales, namely, Gwenwynwyn, Maelgwn ap Rhys, Madog ap Gruffudd Maelor, Maredudd ap Rhobert. And he rose up against the king, and by the end of two months, he laid seige to all the castles which the king had built in Gwynedd, and took them all except two, Degannwy and Rhuddlan. And there was a battle in Spain between the Christians and the Saracens. And there were slain of the Saracens and Pagans seventy thousand men and three thousand women. And three leaders of gentle birth from Wales were hanged in England, namely, Hywel ap Cadwallon, Madog ap Maelgwn, Meurig Barach. And Pope Innocent the Third absolved three princes, namely, Llywelyn ab Iorwerth and Gwenwynwyn and Maelgwn ap Rhys, from the oath and allegiance they owed to the king of England. And he enjoined upon them, for the remission of their sins, to direct friendly endeavour and action against the iniquity of that king. And he interdicted the churches for five years in all England and Wales, except for the territory of those three princes and those who were leagued with them.

1213 In this year John, king of England, went to the archbishop of Canterbury to do penance. And he recalled the archbishop and the bishops and the clerics who had gone into exile because of the interdict on the churches. And he swore, too, that he would restore everything that he had taken from the Church. And Llywelyn ab Iorwerth took the castle of Degannwy and the castle of Rhuddlan, and he gained possession of them.

1214 In this year John, king of England, and along with him a vast multitude of fighting men, sailed to Poitou. And he rose up with great turmoil and war against Philip, king of France. And after fighting long, through God's providence, the victory fell to the king of France. And after making a seven-years' truce with him, John returned to England. And he restored to the clerics almost all that had been taken from them.

1215 In this year strife arose between John, king of England, and the leading men of the realm. And that strife spread so much that all the leading men and the princes of Wales made a pact against the king that no one of them, without the consent of all the others, would make peace or agreement or truce with the king until he gave to the Church its liberty and its rights, and until there there should be restored to each one of them their laws and their power and their castles, which he had taken from them without law or truth or justice. And then the men of the North rose up against him and subdued the city of London. And Llywelyn ab Iorwerth, prince of Gwynedd, and the Welsh made for Shrewsbury; and the town and the castle surrendered to them without resistance. And Reginald de Breos took for his wedded wife the daughter of Llywelyn ab Iorwerth, prince of Gwynedd. And Llywelyn ab Iorwerth, by counsel of all the princes of Wales along with him, led a host, by their common counsel, against Carmarthen. And by the fifth day the castle surrendered to them, and they razed it to the ground. and thereupon they overthrew to the ground Llanstephan and St. Clears and Laugharne and the new castle in Emlyn. And the castles of Trefdraeth, Cardigan and Cilgerran surrendered to them.

1216 In this year Gwenwynwyn ab Owain Cyfeiliog, lord of Powys, made a solemn pact with John, king of England, and he renounced and scorned the oaths and pledges and charters which he had given to Llywelyn ab Iorwerth and to the princes and leading men of Wales and England, and he renounced the homage he had done to Llywelyn ab Iorwerth. And when Llywelyn learned that, it vexed him and he beseeched him to return. And when he had gained nothing thereby, he gathered a host and summoned to him almost all the princes of wales, and went to Powys and drove Gwenwynwyn in flight to the earl of Chester; and he subdued for himself all his land and gained possession of it. And about the feast of St. Luke the Evangelist, John, king of England, died at Newark; and he was taken to Worcester and was buried honourably in the church of Mary near the grave of St. Wulfstan.

1217 In this year Reginald de Breos made peace with the King. And when Rhys and Owain, sons of Gruffudd, saw that their uncle had renounced his pact, they rose up against him and took from the cantref of Builth, and gained possession of it all except the castle. And Llywelyn ab Iorwerth also was enraged on account of that reconciliation. And he moved a host against Reginald and made for Brycheiniog, and went against Brecon. And the burgesses, with the help of Rhys Ieuanc ap Gruffudd, made peace with him. And Reginald surrendered to Llywelyn and Llywelyn gave him the castle of Seinenydd. And Llywelyn turned his course towards Dyfed, and Rhys ap Gruffudd with him and a host of the men of the South. And the Flemmings sued for peace. And in the meantime peace was discussed between the king of England and Louis, son of the king of France. And peace was made between them in this wise: the king of England gave to the barons of England all their laws and all their customs; and on either side the prisoners were released; and Louis forswore the land of England for ever.

1218 In this year Christianity was restored to the Southerners. And the castles of Carmarthen and cardigan were given to the Lord Llywelyn, prince of Gwynedd, to keep. And Rhys ap Gruffudd alone of all the men of the South, by counsel of the Lord Llywelyn, made for the king's court and did him homage.

1219 In this year Rhys Gryg took the daughter of the earl of Clare for his wedded wife and John de Breos took Margaret, daughter of the Lord Llywelyn, for his wedded wife.

1220 In this year about the feast of Ieuan y Coed, Llywelyn, prince of Gwynedd, gathering to him the princes and leading men of all Wales, moved a mighty host against the Flemmings of Rhos and Pembroke because of the frequent attacks they made upon the Welsh. And he burned Haverford all to the gates of the castle. And he traversed Rhos and Daugleddau inflicting immense slaughter. And at last, having made a truce he returned joyfully.

1221 In this year John de Breos, by leave and counsel of the Lord Llywelyn, repaired the castle of Swansea.

1222 In this year died Rhys Ieuanc ap Gruffudd ship and haven and defender of the weak; father and shepherd and foster-father of clerics; the trampler and terror and fear of his enemies; the one hope of all Deheubarth. Moreover, he died after long infirmity of illness and pain, making a good end after assuming the habit of the order of the White Monks of Ystrad Fflur. And after him Owain, his brother, succeeded to his patrimony, but he received only a portion; and the other portion Llywelyn gave to Maelgwn ap Rhys.

1223 In this year there was war between William Marshal and the Lord Llywelyn.

1224 In this year a community was sent from Whitland to the "White Strand" in Ireland.

1225 In this year died Cedifor, abbot of Ystrad Fflur.

1226 In this year died Louis, the eminent king of France.

1227 In this year Maredudd, son of Yr Arglwydd Rhys, archdeacon of Ceredigion, died in the church of Mary at Lampeter; and Iorwerth, bishop of Menevia, buried him honourably near the grave of Yr Arglwydd Rhys, his father, in the church of Dewi Sant.

1228 In this year Henry, king of England, and with him a vast host came to Wales, planning to subdue the Lord Llywelyn and all the Welsh. And the Welsh gathered together in unity with their prince and attacked him in the place that is called Ceri. And the king after peace had been arranged between him and Llywelyn, and after the leading men of Wales who were there had done him homage, without kingly honour, he returned to England.

1229 In this year died Iorwerth, bishop of Menevia.

1230 In this year William de Breos the Younger, lord of Brycheiniog, was hanged by the Lord Llywelyn in Gwynedd, after he had been caught in Llywelyn's chamber with the king of England's daughter, Llywelyn's wife.

1231 In this year Maelgwn, son of Yr Arglwydd Rhys, died at Llanerch Aeron; and he was buried at Ystrad Fflur in the chapter-house. And king Henry built Painscastle in Elfael. And strife grew afresh between the Lordd Llywelyn and the king, and Llywelyn destroyed Baldwin's Castle, Brecon, Hay and Radnor and burned them all. And he burned the town of Caerleon and destroyed the castles of Neath and Cydweli. And Maelgwn Ieuanc ap Maelgwn manfully made for the town of Cardigan and he ravaged it and burned it completely up to the castle gate; and he slew all the burgesses whom he found in it, and returned again in victory with vast spoils. And he broke the bridge over the Teifi. And Maelgwn went a second time to Cardigan with Owain ap Gruffudd and the Lord Llywelyn's men and laid seige to the castle and breached it with cataults till the garrison was forced to surrender the castle.

1232 In this year John de Breos was drawn at is own horse's tail; and so he died a cruel death.

1233 In this year Llywelyn and a mighty host along with him went to Brycheiniog, and he burned all the towns and the castles, and he carried many spoils away with him. And he razed Castell Coch to the ground; and he burned the town of Oswestry. And strife arose between Henry, king of England, and Richard Marshall, earl of Pembroke. And the earl made a solemn pact and agreement with the Lord Llywelyn and with the Welsh. And Richard Marshall and Owain ap Gruffudd took the castles of Cardiff, Abergavenny, Pencelli, Blaenllynfi, Bwlchydinas, and they destroyed them all except Cardiff. And Rhys Gryg, son of Yr Arglwydd Rhys, died at Llandeilo-fawr, and he was buried at Menevia, near the grave of Yr Arglwydd Rhys.

1234 In this year Richard, earl of Pembroke, a young knight eminent in arms, went to Ireland. And there in battle his barons treacherously deserted him and he was mortally wounded. And Gruffudd, son of the Lord Llywelyn, was released from prison.

1235 In this year Owain ap Gruffudd, a man of gentle lineage and of graceful manners, died at Ystrad Fflur. And he was buried in the chapter-house of the monks, close by the grave of Rhys Ieuanc, his brother.

1236 In this year Gilbert, earl of Pembroke, took by treachery the castle of Morgan ap Hywel, which is called Machein. And after making a great fortification around it he gave back the castle for fear of the Lord Llywelyn.

1237 In this year the Lady of Wales, wife of Llywelyn ab Iorwerth and daughter to the king of England, - her name was Joan - died in Llywelyn's court at Aber; and her body was buried in a consecrated enclosure which was on the shore-bank. And there after that bishop Hywel consecrated a monastery for the Barefoot Friars to the honour of the Blessed Mary. And the prince built it all at his cost for the soul of his lady.

1238 In this year on the day after the feast of St. Luke the Evangelist, all the princes of Wales swore allegiance and fealty to Dafydd ap Llywelyn at Ystrad Fflur. And Maredudd ap Madog ap Gruffudd Maelor slew Gruffudd, his brother. And forthwith the Lord Llywelyn took from him all his territory.

1239 In this year died Maredudd Goeg, son of Yr Arglwydd Rhys; and he was buried at Whitland. And Dafydd ap Llywelyn seized Gruffudd, his brother, and imprisoned him and his son in the castle of Cricieth.

1240 In this year the Lord Llywelyn ab Iorwerth ab Owain Gwynedd, prince of Wales, a second Achilles, died after he had assumed the Order of Aberconwy; and he was buried honourably there. And after him ruled Dafydd, his son by Joan, daughter of John, king of England. And that Dafydd did homage to Henry, king of England, his uncle, at Gloucester.

1241 In this year the king gathered a mighty host to subdue all the Welsh and to receive their homage. And he fortified a castle at Disserth, and took hostages from Gwynedd. And he gave to Gruffudd ap Gwenwynwyn his rights in Powys, and to the sons of Maredudd ap Cynan their territory in Meirionydd; and he took Gruffudd ap Llywelyn to London to his prison.

1242 In this year died Gruffudd ap Maredudd, son of Yr Arglwydd Rhys, who was then archdeacon in Cardigan.

1243 In this year Henry, king of England, unrighteously oppressed Welshmen and many others.

1244 In this year died Rhys Mechyll ap Rhys Gryg. And as Gruffudd ap Llywelyn and some of his men along with him were in the king of England's prison in London, he planned to escape and threw a rope through the tower window and sought to escape along it; but through ill-fate the rope broke, and he fell, so that his neck was broken. And when Dafydd, his brother, heard that, he was moved by great anger, and he summoned to him all his leading men and swooped like a lion amongst his enemies and drove them all from his bounds, save for those who were in castles.

1245 In this year Henry, king of England, and along with him a mighty host came to Degannwy, planning to subdue all the Welsh. And there he fortified himself a castle against the will of Dafydd ap Llywelyn, and returned to England. And to commemorate his act, he left many corpses of his men dead in Gwynedd unburied, some in the sea, others on land.

1246 In this year the shield of Wales, Dafydd ap Llywelyn, died in his court at Aber; and his body was buried at Aberconwy with the body of his father. And since he had no heir of his body, there ruled after him the sons of Gruffudd, Owain Goch and Llywelyn. And those by counsel of the wise men of the land, divided the territory into two halves between them.

1247 In this year Hywel ab Ednyfed, bishop of St. Asaph, died at Oxford; and there he was buried.

1248 In this year the king granted the abbot of Ystrad Fflur and the abbot of Aberconwy the body of Gruffudd ap Llywelyn, when they came to seek it; and they took it with them to Aberconwy, where it lies.

1249 In this year Louis, the most eminent king of France, and with him his three brothers and the queen, went to the city of Damietta, which the Almighty God delivered to him after the Saracens had left it. And after that the Saracens captured that said king, after Robert, his brother, and about thirty thousand of the Christians had been slain. And for his release and safe conduct to Acre, he delivered Damietta to the Saracens and an immense sum of money therewith. And he returned safely hence. And within a few days after that God gave him victory over his enemies and over the enemies of Christ, and vengeance for his own men by the capture of many of the Saracens and the killing of countless numbers of them.

1250 In this year the king of Scotland died.

1251 In this year Gwladus, daughter of Llywelyn ab Iorwerth, died at Windsor. And about the end of that year Morgan son of Yr Arglwydd Rhys, died at Ystrad Fflur after assuming the habit of the order.

1252 In this year died Gwilym ap Gwrwared, steward to the king over the land which had belonged to Maelgwn Ieuanc. That man carried off spoil from Elfael at the king's command, because the men of Elfael sought to make use of the pastures of Elfed as though by right.

1253 In this year Thomas, bishop of Menevia, returned from the court of Rome.

1254 In this year Gwenllian, daughter of Maelgwn Ieuanc, died at Llanfihangel Gelynrhod on the feast-day of At. Catherine; and her body was buried honourably at Ystrad Fflur in the chapter-house of the monks.

1255 In this year strife arose between the sons of Gruffudd ap Llywelyn, Owain Goch and Dafydd, his brother, on one side and Llywelyn on the other. And Llywelyn, trusting in God, fearlessly awaited the coming of his brothers against him, and with them a mighty host. And unperturbed in the fighting, in the space of an hour he captured his brothers and imprisoned them, after many of their men had been slain and others put to flight. And he gained possession of all their lands without any opposition to him. And died Margaret, daughter of Maelgwn, wife of Owain ap Rhobert. And the grat bell of Ystrad Fflur was bought for twenty-seven marks and five shillings and two cows. And it was raised on the feast-day of St. Bartholomew the apostle, and it was consecrated by the bishop of Bangor.

1256 In this year the gentlefolk of Wales, despoiled of their liberty and their rights, came to Llywelyn ap Gruffudd and revealed to him with tears their grievous bondage to the English; and they made known to him that they preferred to be slain in war for their liberty than to suffer themselves to be unrighteously trampled by foreigners. And Llywelyn, at their instigation and by their counsel and at their request, made for Perfeddwlad, and with him Maredudd ap Rhys Gryg; and he gaiined possession of it all. And after that he took the cantref of Meirionydd into his hands. And the land that belonged to Edward, the earl of Chester, the son of king Henry, he gave to Maredudd ab Owain, and Builth he gave to Maredudd ap Rhys, and keeping naught for himself, but only fame and honour. And after that he took Gwerthrynion from Roger de Mortimer and held it in his own hand.

1257 In this year Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, and Maredudd ap Rhys and Maredudd ab Owain along with him, went against the land of Gruffudd ap Gwenwynwyn, and he gained possession of it all except the castle of welshpool and a portion of the valley of the Severn. And after that Llywelyn ap Gruffudd took the land of Cemaes and burned all Rhos except Haverford. And then he dispossessed Gruffudd ap Gwenwynwyn of his land. And Maelgwn Ieunanc died and his body was buried in the chapter-house at Ystrad Fflur.

1258 In this year all the Welsh made a pact together, and they gave an oath to maintain loyalty and agreement together, under pain of excommunication upon whomsoever of them broke it. And Maredudd ap Rhys went against that oath, without keeping his oath. And strife arose in England between the foreigners. And Dafydd ap Gruffudd and Maredudd ab Owain and Rhys ap Rhys went to parley with Maredudd ap Rhys and Patrick de Chaworth, seneschal to the king at Carmarthen. And Patrick and Maredudd broke the truce and swooped down on them. And then Patrick was slain, and with him many knights and foot-soldiers.

1259 In this year king Henry sailed to France to parley with the king of France.

1260 In this year Llywelyn ap Gruffudd went to the land of Builth; and he took that land from Roger de Mortimer. And Owain ap Maredudd of Elfael came to Llywelyn's peace.

1261 In this year died Gwladus, daughter of Gruffudd, who was wife to Rhys Ieuanc ap Rhys Mechyll. And Owain ap Maredudd, lord of Cydewain, died.

1262 In this year Llywelyn ap Gruffudd came to Malienydd and Brycheiniog and received homage.

1263 In this year John Lestrange, constable and bailiff of Baldwin's Castle, gathered a mighty host and came by night through Ceri. And the Welsh gathered in pursuit of them and slew two hundred of the English, some in a field, others in the barn of Aber-miwi. And the barons of England and the Welsh rose up against Edward and the foreigners, and desired to cast them forth from all the kingdom of England. And Llywelyn ap Gruffudd and his host took and destroyed the castles of Carreg Faelan and Degannwy. And Gruffudd ap Gwenwynwyn destoyed the castle of Yr Wyddgrug.

1264 In this year after a mighty battle at Lewes the earls and barons captured the king and his sons, Edward and Edmund, and slew ten thousand of the king's men. And Wales had a peace from the English and Llywelyn ap Gruffudd was prince over all Wales.

1265 In this year Edward, son of Henry, escaped and defeated earl Simon de Montford at Evesham. And Maredudd ab Owain, defender of all Deheubarth and counsellor of all Wales, died at Llanbadarn-fawr; and he was buried at Ystrad Fflur.

1266 In this year king Henry and Edward, his son, took the castle of Kenilworth.

1267 In this year Llywelyn ap Gruffudd made a pact with the earl of Clare. And after that the earl gathered a mighty host and made for the city of London; and forthwith through the deceit and treachery of the burgesses he took the city. And king Henry and Edward, his son, forced the earl to submit. And peace and concord were arranged between Henry, king of England, and the Lord Llywelyn, prince of Wales, with Ottobon, the Pope's legate, as mediator between them, at Baldwin's Castle. And for that peace and agreement he promised to the king thirty thousand marks of the king's sterling. And the king granted that the prince should receive the homage of the barons of Wales, and that the barons should maintain themselves and their followers wholly under the prince, and that there should be princes of Wales from that time forth, and that they should be so named. And that was also ratified by the authority of the Pope.

1268 In this year Goronnwy ab Ednyfed, steward to the prince, a man eminent in arms and generous with gifts died. And died Joab, abbot of Ystrad Fflur.

1269 In this year Gruffudd ap Madog ap Gruffudd Maelor and Madog Fychan, his brother, died on the same day.

1270 In this year Llywelyn ap Gruffudd took the castle of Caerfilli.

1271 In this year Maredudd ap Rhys Gryg, a brave, powerful man, died in his own castle at dryslwyn; and his body was honourably buried in the great Church at Whitland on the steps in front of the altar. And Rhys Ieuanc ap Rhys Mechyll died in his castle at Dinefwr; and he was buried in the monastery of Talley.

1272 In this year Henry, king of England, died. And after him Edward, his eldest son, reigned.

1273 In this year Owain and Gruffudd, sons of Maredudd, gave Cwmwd Perfedd to Cynan, their brother.

1274 In this year Llywelyn ap Gruffudd sent messengers to Gruffudd ap Gwenwynwyn to the castle of Welshpool. And Gwenwynwyn had them made prisoners. And Llywelyn gathered the host of all Wales to lay seige the castle. And he took the castle, released the messengers, and he burned the castle and subdued the territory of Gruffudd ap Gwenwynwyn, and placed officers of his own in every place in the territory.

1275 In this year king Edward summoned the Lord Llywelyn to render him homage at Chester. And after taking counsel from the leading men of all Wales, he did not go to the king's court because his fugitives were with the king, and the king commending them and maintaining them, namely Dafydd ap Gruffudd and Gruffudd ap Gwenwynwyn. And the king in rage returned to England.

1276 In this year Llywelyn frequently sent messengers to the king's court to seek to arrange peace between them, but he did not succeed at all. And king Edward set up three hosts to war against the Welsh. And those gained possession of Powys for Gruffudd ap Gwenwynwyn, and Cydewain and Ceri and Gwerthrynion and Builth for Roger de Mortimer; and the earl of Hereford gained possession of Brycheiniog.

1277 In this year the earl of Lincoln and Roger de Mortimer laid seige to the prince's castle of Dolforwyn, and took it by seige for lack of water. And then Rhys ap Maredudd and Rhys Wyndod, the prince's nephew, made a pact with Pain de Chaworth. And Deheubarth submitted to the king, and the three commots above the Aeron. And Edmund, the king's brother, built a castle at Aberystwyth. And the king fortified Flint and Rhuddlan. And the prince came to Rhuddlan to the king to make peace with him. and the king invited him to London at Christmas; and there he tendered his homage.

1278 In this year king Edward and Edmund, his brother, gave Eleanor, daughter of Simon de Montfort, their kinsman, as wedded wife to the prince. And they married in the cathedral church at Winchester, with king Edward there and then going to liberal expense for the wedding banquet. And by her the prince had a daughter, who was called Gwenllian. And Eleanor died giving birth to her. And that Gwenllian, after the prince's death, was taken into captivity in England; and before her coming of age she was made a nun against her will.

1279 In this year king Edward had his money changed, and the halfpenny and the farthing were made round. Andthen was verified the soothsaying of Myrddin when he said, "The form of exchange shall be split, and its half shall be round."

1280 In this year died Phylip Goch, abbot of Ystrad Fflur. And after him came Einion Sais, under whom the monastery was after thar burned. And Thomas, bishop of Menevia, sang the first Mass that he sang in his diocese at the high altar in the church at Ystrad Fflur.

1281 In this year Dafydd ap Gruffudd took the castle at Hawarden, after slaying all the garrison except Roger de Clifford, lord of the castle, and Pain de Gamage. Those he imprisoned.

1282 In this year Gruffudd ap Maredudd and Rhys Fychan ap Rhys ap Maelgwn took the castle and town of Aberystwyth. And Rhys gained possession of the cantref of Penweddig and Gruffudd the commot of Mefenydd. On Palm Sunday took place the breach between Llywelyn ap Gruffudd and Edward Longshanks, king of England. And the autumn after that, the king and his host came to Rhuddlan. And he sent a fleet of ships to Anglesey, and they gained possession of Arfon. And then was made the bridge over the Menai; but the bridge broke and countless numbers of the English were drowned and others slain. And then was effected the betrayal of Llywelyn in the belfry at Bangor by his own men. And then Llywelyn ap Gruffudd left Dafydd, his brother, guarding Gwynedd; and he himself and his host went to gain possession of Powys and Builth. And he gained possession as far as Llanganten. And thereupon he sent his men and his steward to receive the homage of the men of Brycheiniog, and the prince was left with but a few men with him. And then Roger Mortimer and Gruffudd ap Gwenwynwyn, and with them the king's host, came upon them without warning; and then Llywelyn and his foremost men were slain on the day of Damasus the Pope, a fortnight to the day from Christmas day; and that was a Friday.